PUBERTAL HORMONES AND SEXUALITY

 PUBERTAL HORMONES AND SEXUALITY  Comments Off on PUBERTAL HORMONES AND SEXUALITY
Feb 092011
 

During puberty, rising hormone levels contribute to an activation of sexual sensations and erotic thoughts and dreams for boys and girls. John Money in ig8o described the role of hormones as follows: “the correct conception of hormonal puberty is that it puts gas in the metaphorical tank and upgrades the model of the vehicle, but it does not build the engine nor program the itinerary of the journey.”
The relationship between pubertal hormones and sexual behavior is shown in the finding that boys who undergo “late” puberty (around ages fifteen or sixteen) generally have less and later teenage sexual activity — including masturbation and intercourse — than boys who have “early” puberty (around ages twelve or thirteen). Kinsey and his colleagues pointed out this pattern and we have some preliminary data showing that it is probably true. If testosterone levels of the pubertal boy increase the frequency or intensity of erections, for example, he may possibly have a heightened awareness of sexual sensations. Increased testosterone in the blood may also influence the brain, itself to activate sexual feelings or thoughts or to lower the threshold for external triggers that activate such feelings or thoughts. Boys with higher testosterone levels, then, are more likely to be more physically developed and sexually active. Shorter, less muscular, later-maturing boys may experience a social handicap. While having sexual feelings, they may feel less confident about their abilities and therefore “lag” in sexual behavior.
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 Posted by at 11:58 am

PREGNANCY: SIGNS, PRENATAL CARE, DIET AND BIRTH OF BABY

 PREGNANCY  Comments Off on PREGNANCY: SIGNS, PRENATAL CARE, DIET AND BIRTH OF BABY
Feb 092011
 

The time from conception until birth; the average pregnancy is 280 days. Every organ and tissue of the body of the mother is affected by pregnancy. The time when a woman is most likely to become pregnant is the period between the sixth and eleventh days after the first day of menstruation.

Signs of Pregnancy
The breasts begin to enlarge as early as the second month, and with a first baby, even, sometimes, as early as the second or third week. Among the most definite signs of pregnancy are cessation of menstruation, morning nausea, and vomiting which begins usually during the second month and rarely lasts beyond the fourth month. Another symptom is increased emotionalism, with peevishness, fretfulness and irritability. Cravings for strange foods may appear. Fluttering (called “quickening”) is experienced between the sixteenth and eighteenth week. The usual changes in the shape and size of the body are well known. X-ray will show the presence of the child and, later, its position. The doctor can hear the heartbeat of the child between the eighteenth and twentieth weeks and sometimes even earlier. Laboratory tests like the Aschheim-Zondek test, made on rabbits and on frogs, are accurate determinations of the presence of pregnancy.

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 Posted by at 11:55 am

SYPHILIS DURING PREGNANCY

 SYPHILIS DURING PREGNANCY  Comments Off on SYPHILIS DURING PREGNANCY
Feb 092011
 

Prevention and detection of congenital syphilis depends on serologic screening of the mother during pregnancy. Women should be screened for syphilis with serologic testing at the first prenatal visit. Women at high risk for syphilis should be screened at 28 weeks’ gestation and at delivery, in addition to the routine early testing. Screening at delivery is also mandated in some states. In addition, a woman who delivers a stillborn infant after 20 weeks’ gestation should be screened for syphilis. All pregnant women with syphilis should also be tested for HIV. Treatment during pregnancy with penicillin is effective in preventing maternal-fetal transmission and in treating an infected fetus. Pregnant women should receive the same penicillin regimens as non-pregnant patients, appropriate for the stage of syphilis, and the same serologic follow-up testing. No alternatives to penicillin have proven efficacy for syphilis in pregnancy. Erythromycin does not reliably cure syphilis in the fetus, and there are insufficient data for the use of ceftriaxone and azithromycin. Tetracycline and doxycycline should not be used in pregnancy. Therefore, all pregnant patients with syphilis who have a history of a penicillin allergy should be desensitized and treated with penicillin, with or without the use of skin testing.

The Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction develops in up to 45% of pregnant women treated with penicillin and may precipitate uterine contractions, preterm labor, and fetal heart-rate decelerations during the second half of pregnancy. Routine hospitalization for fetal monitoring after treatment is not currently recommended, however, unless the fetus has evidence of fetal syphilis on ultrasonogram. Women being treated in early pregnancy should be counseled to stay well hydrated and to take acetaminophen for uterine cramping, pain, or fever, whereas those at greater than 20 weeks’ gestation should seek obstetric evaluation for fever, decreased fetal movement, or symptoms of labor. Treatment is largely supportive and may require continuous fetal heart rate monitoring. There is not enough evidence to recommend prophylactic therapy to prevent this reaction.
*7/348/5*
WOMEN’S HEALTH

 Posted by at 11:54 am

SURGERY ANDRHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS

 SURGERY ANDRHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS  Comments Off on SURGERY ANDRHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS
Feb 092011
 

Sometimes, despite timely medical therapy, rheumatoid arthritis (RA) continues to cause inflammation and joint damage. When other therapies haven’t been successful, surgery may be necessary. Surgical techniques are constantly being improved, providing new alternatives to help people with RA.
Surgery is recommended for a variety of reasons, the most common of which is to control severe pain caused by inflammation or damaged joints. Surgery may also be advised to repair ruptured ligaments or tendons or to remove inflamed synovial tissue that has not responded adequately to other therapy and which threatens to cause joint damage. Finally, surgery may be the recommended treatment to retain or restore function in a specific joint.
Some surgical procedures are intended to provide temporary relief and to prevent damage over the long term. Others are corrective measures aimed at improving the function of joints that have already been damaged.
*110/209/5*
ARTHRITIS

 Posted by at 11:52 am